604 International Criminal Courts
 

604 International Criminal Courts

ICC web site at http://www2.icc-cpi.int/Menus/ICC/Home

  1. The Official Journal of the International Criminal Court.  Links to legal instruments, international treaties, codes of ethics, personnel-related documents, finance-related documents, and other texts.
  2. Links to cases and situations at http://www.icc-cpi.int/cases.html.

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, adopted July 17, 1998, 2187 U.N.T.S. 3 (entered into force July 1, 2002).

  1. PDF version of treaty accessible from within the Official Journal of the ICC web page at http://www2.icc-cpi.int/Menus/ICC/Legal+Texts+and+Tools/Official+Journal. This web page also links to PDF versions of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, the Elements of Crimes, and the Regulations of the Court.
  2. U.N. Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court.  Conference documents including agenda, final document, drafts, letters, and related materials at http://www.un.org/icc/index.htm. (Includes references to the U.N. document classification numbers.) (PDF and HTML formats)
  3. Alternate site for links to background documents, but updated only through Dec. 19, 2003, at http://www.un.org/law/icc/index.html.
  4. Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs, see ch. XIV, "The International Court of Justice" (Arts. 92-96 of the U.N. Charter) (in process).
  5. Selected publications in print at Underwood:
    1. Aksar, Yusuf, Implementing International Humanitarian Law: From the Ad Hoc Tribunals to a Permanent International Criminal Court (2004).  Law: KZ6471 A39 2004
    2. Archbold International Criminal Courts: Practice, Procedure & Evidence (2005). Law: KZ6310 A73 2005
    3. Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Legislative History of the International Criminal Court: Introduction, Analysis, and Integrated Text (3 vols.) (2005). Law: KZ6312 L44 2005 v.__
    4. Bassiouni, M. Cherif, The Statute of the International Criminal Court: a Documentary History (1998).
      Law: K5000 B38 1998
    5. Broomhall, Bruce, International Justice and the International Criminal Court: Between Sovereignty and the Rule of Law (2003).    Law: KZ6310 B76 2003
    6. Cassese, Antonio, Paola Gaeta, & John R.W.D. Jones, The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary (3 vols.) (2002).   Law: 4th fl. KZ6310 R665 2002
    7. "Finalized Draft Text of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence," 4 Global Int'l Courts Rev. 65 (2002).
    8. Lee, Roy S., The International Criminal Court: Elements of Crimes and Rules of Procedure and Evidence (2001).
      Law: KZ6310 I579 2001
    9. Lee, Roy S., The International Criminal Court: the Making of the Rome Statute--Issues, Negotiations, Results (1999).  Law: KZ6310 I58 1999
    10. Legum, Barton, International Litigation Strategies and Practice (2005).  Law: KF8840 I578 2005
    11. McGoldrick, Rowe, & Donnelly, Permanent International Criminal Court: Legal and Policy Issues (2004).  Law: KZ6310 P47 2004
    12. Olasolo, Triggering Procedure of the International Criminal Court (2005). Law: KZ6314 O43 2005
    13. Politi & Nesi, eds., International Criminal Court and the Crime of Aggression (2004). Law: KZ6374 I58 2004
    14. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 37 I.L.M. 999 (1998) (original text). [Available in Hein-On-Line database.]
    15. Schabas, Introduction to the International Criminal Court, 2nd ed. (2004). Law: KZ6310 S33 2004
    16. Shelton, Dinah, International Crimes, Peace, and Human Rights: the Role of the International Criminal Court (2000). 
      Law: KZ6310 I576 2000

Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court (1999-2002)

  1. Guide, documents, and reports at http://untreaty.un.org/cod/icc/prepcomm/prepfra.htm.


Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (2002-   )

  1. Assembly's web site at http://www2.icc-cpi.int/Menus/ASP with links to official records of the Assembly, updated list of the states parties, and meetings calendar with links to agendas & documents.
  2. Agreement on Privileges and Immunities of the International Criminal Court, adopted by the Assembly, at http://www2.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/23F24FDC-E9C2-4C43-BE19-A19F5DDE8882/140090/Agreement_on_Priv_and_Imm_120704EN.pdf. (PDF format)
  3. Selected publications in print at Underwood:
    1. Official Records.  Law: KZ6310 A87.

United States response to the Int'l Criminal Ct.--Documents

  1. Letter to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Regarding the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 41 I.L.M. 1014 (2002) (Letter dated April 27, 2002 from the U.S. Government declaring intent NOT to be a party to the treaty.)
  2. Dept. of State, Office of War Crimes Issues at http://www.state.gov/s/wci/.
  3. Is a U.N. International Criminal Court in the U.S. National Interest? 105th Cong. (1998) (Hearing of the Senate Comm. on Foreign Relations; S. Hrg. 105-724). (PDF format)
  4. International Criminal Court--Article 98 Agreements (Georgetown Univ. Law Library).  A handy guide and links to bilateral U.S. agreements on non-surrender of Americans to the Court at http://www.ll.georgetown.edu/intl/guides/article_98.cfm.

Recent Developments: Situation in Darfur, Sudan

  1. U.N. Security Council Resolution 1593 refers the Darfur (Sudan) problem to the International Criminal Court. [U.N. Doc. S/Res/1593 (Mar. 31, 2005).]
  2. Prosecutor of the ICC Opens Investigation in Darfur,  ICC Press Release of June 6, 2005.
  3. Report of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Mr. Luis Moreno Ocampo, to the Security Council pursuant to UNSCR 1593 (June 29, 2005). [Press release (html) and link to full text. (PDF format)]  For further developments, go to the Press Releases for the Court.


International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

Tribunal's web site at http://www.icty.org.

Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former , adopted by U.N. Security Council Resolution 827, U.N. Doc. S/Res/827 (May 25, 1993).

  1. Text of statute at http://www.icty.org/sections/LegalLibrary/StatuteoftheTribunal, as adopted; PDF version updated to Sep. 2009.
  2. Rules of Procedure and Evidence at http://www.icty.org/sections/LegalLibrary/RulesofProcedureandEvidence, as amended through December 10, 2009.
  3. Practice Directions of the Tribunal at http://www.icty.org/sections/LegalLibrary/PracticeDirections as amended through February 2008.
  4. Decisions of the Tribunal on Westlaw (requires ID).
  5. Searchable database of decisions from WorldLII at http://www.worldlii.org/int/cases/ICTY/ (from 1996 forward).  Alternatively, see the International Courts and Tribunals Project web page.
  6. Basic legal documents of the Tribunal on Westlaw (requires ID).
  7. Selected publications in print at Underwood Law Library or accessible on the Internet:
    1. Ackerman, John E. & Eugene O'Sullivan,  Practice and Procedure before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: with Selected Materials from the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (2000).    Law Reserve: KZ1203 A12 A25 2000
    2. Archbold International Criminal Courts: Practice, Procedure & Evidence (2005). Law: KZ6310 A73 2005
    3. Drumbl, Mark A., "ICTY Appeals Chamber Delivers Two Major Judgments: Blaskic and Krstic," ASIL Insights, at http://www.asil.org/insigh143.cfm (Aug. 2004).
    4. Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity: A Topical Digest of the Case Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (Human Rights Watch) (print copy to be place on Reserve), downloadable PDF file at http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/ICTYweb_0.pdf (Jul. 2006).
    5. Hazan, Pierre, Justice in the Time of War: the True Story Behind the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (2004).
      Law: KZ1203 A2 H39 2004
    6. Jones, John R.W.D., International Criminal Practice: the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the International Criminal Court, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the East Timor Special Panel for Serious Crimes, War Crimes Prosecutions in Kosovo (2003).    Law: KZ6310 J66 2003
    7. Jones, John R.W.D., The Practice of the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, 2nd ed. (2000). 
      Law: KZ1203 A16 2000
    8. Judicial Reports, 1994-95 (vols. 1-  )  (1999).    Law: K5301 A495 J83 1999
    9. Kerr, Rachel, The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: An Exercise in Law, Politics, and Diplomacy (2004). Law: KZ1203 K47 2004
    10. Morris, Virginia & Michael Scharf, An Insider's Guide to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: a Documentary History & Analysis (1994).   Law: JX5430 M67 1994
    11. Oppenheim & van der Wolf, Global War Crimes Tribunal Collection (vol. 2A-  , 1997-   ) (commentary, documents, and decisions). Law: KZ1168.5 G56 v.__
    12. Mettraux, Guenael, International Crimes and the Ad Hoc Tribunals (2005).  Law: K5301 M48 2005.
    13. Romano, et al., eds., Internationalized Criminal Courts and Tribunals: Sierra Leone, East Timor, Kosovo, and Cambodia (2004).  Law: KZ6310 I584 2004
    14. Scharf, Michael P., "ICTY Appeals Chamber Decision on Slobodan Milosevic's Right to Self-Representation," ASIL Insights, at http://www.asil.org/insight041111.cfm (Nov. 2004).
    15. Secretary General's Report on Aspects of Establishing an International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia, 32 I.L.M. 1159 (1993).  (Security Council document, S/25704 dated May 3, 1993).  (Available in Hein-On-Line database.)


International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

Tribunal's web site at http://www.ictr.org/.
Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, U.N. Security Council Resolution 955, U.N. Doc. S/Res/955 (Nov. 8, 1994).

  1. HTML text of statute at http://www.ictr.org/ENGLISH/basicdocs/statute.html, as amended. 
  2. Rules of Procedure and Evidence at http://69.94.11.53/ENGLISH/rules/070605/070605.pdf, as amended May 21, 2005. (PDF format)
  3. Final decisions and cases in progress are linked from the Tribunal's "Cases" page at http://www.ictr.org/default.htm.  Click on "Cases" on left-hand side of page.
  4. Database of decisions from WorldLII at http://www.worldlii.org/int/cases/ICTR/ (from 1998 forward).
  5. Decisions of the Tribunal on Westlaw (requires ID).
  6. Selected publications in print at Underwood:
    1. Ackerman, John E. & Eugene O'Sullivan,  Practice and Procedure before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: with Selected Materials from the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (2000).    Law Reserve: KZ1203 A12 A25 2000
    2. Archbold International Criminal Courts: Practice, Procedure & Evidence(2005). Law: KZ6310 A73 2005
    3. Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity: Topical Digests of the Case Law of the International Tribunal for Rwanda and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (Human Rights Watch), downloadable PDF file at http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/ictr0110webwcover.pdf (Jan. 2010).
    4. Herik, van den, Contribution of the Rwanda Tribunal to the Development of International Law (2005). Law: KZ1201 A12 H47 2005
    5. Jones, John R.W.D., International Criminal Practice: the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the International Criminal Court, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the East Timor Special Panel for Serious Crimes, War Crimes Prosecutions in Kosovo (2003).    Law: KZ6310 J66 2003
    6. Mettraux, Gueneal, International Crimes and the Ad Hoc Tribunals (2005). Law: K5301 M48 2005
    7. Oppenheim & van der Wolf, Global War Crimes Tribunal Collection (vol. 1-  , 1997-   ) (commentary, documents, and case decisions).   Law: KZ1168.5 G56 v.__
    8. Othman, Mohamed C., Accountability for International Humanitarian Law Violations: The Case for Rwanda and East Timor (2005). Law: K5301 O84 2005
    9. Security Council Resolution 955 (1994) Establishing the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 33 I.L.M. 1598 (1994).  (Statute appears as appendix to Resolution 955.  [Available in Hein-On-Line database.]


Iraqi Higher Criminal Court

The Iraqi Higher Criminal Court (also referred to as the Iraqi High Tribunal [IHT] or the Iraqi High Criminal Court or the Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal) replaced the Iraqi Special Tribunal [IST] pursuant to Law No. 10 of 2005 issued by the interim Iraqi government on October 9, 2005.  The 2005 law revised the text of the 2003 statute, abolished the Iraqi Special Tribunal, and created the Iraqi Higher Criminal Court.   

  1. An unofficial English translation of Law No. 10 of 2005 is available at http://www.law.case.edu/saddamtrial/documents/IST_statute_unofficialenglish.pdf (Case Western) (last visited Aug. 2, 2006).  An unofficial translation of the index and related documents are available from the Law Library of Congress (PDF file).  A summary of the statute's provisions can also be found at the Law Library of Congress website on the trial of Saddam Hussein. 
  2. The Coalition Provisional Authority of Iraq adopted The Statute of the Iraqi Special Tribunal on December 10, 2003.  (English text.)   Occasionally referred to as the Iraqi Special Tribunal for Crimes Against Humanity.
  3. Rules of Procedure, http://www.law.case.edu/saddamtrial/documents/IST_rules_procedure_evidence.pdf (last visited May 12, 2010).
  4. Case School of Law, Grotian Moment: The International War Crimes Trial Blog at http://www.law.case.edu/saddamtrial/index.asp.  Links to documents, news, scholarly commentary.
  5. Law Library of Congress, Trial of Saddam Hussein website at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/hussein/index.php (last revised July 3, 2007).
  6. Selected publications in print at Underwood or online:
    1. A useful summary can be found in the Australian Department of Parliamentary Services, Research Note No. 34, "Iraq's Special Tribunal for Crimes Against Humanity," (Feb. 10, 2004) (PDF file).
    2. Bantekas, Ilias, "The Iraqi Special Tribunal for Crimes Against Humanity," 54 Int'l & Comp. L.Q. 237 (2005).
    3. Human Rights Watch, The Former Iraqi Government on Trial: A Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper, Oct. 16, 2005, at http://hrw.org/backgrounder/mena/iraq1005/ (last visited Aug. 17, 2009).
    4. Orentlicher, Diane F., "Venues for Prosecuting Saddam Hussein: the Legal Framework," ASIL Insights at http://www.asil.org/insigh124.cfm (Dec. 2003).
    5. U.S. Army Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, available at http://faculty.ed.umuc.edu/%7Enstanton/FM27-10.htm (as amended July 16, 1976.)
    6. United States Institute for Peace, Special Report No. 122, "Building the Iraqi Special Tribunal: Lessons from Experiences in International Criminal Law," at http://www.usip.org/resources/building-iraqi-special-tribunal-lessons-experiences-international-criminal-justice-0 (June 2004)


Special Court for Sierra Leone

Special Court for Sierra Leone home page at http://www.sc-sl.org/.  A hybrid court created by the Government of Sierra Leone and by the United Nations.  Purpose is to try those most responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone since November 30, 1996.  Links to the underlying documents creating the special court, its rules of procedure, information on trials & indictments, press releases, text of court decisions, edited trial transcripts, and more.

  1. Jollah, C., "Immunity from Prosecution for International Crimes: The Case of Charles Taylor at the Special Court for Sierra Leone," ASIL Insights, at http://www.asil.org/insigh145.cfm (Oct. 2004).
  2. Jones, John R. W. D., International Criminal Practice: the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the International Criminal Court, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the East Timor Special Panel for Serious Crimes, War Crimes Prosecutions in Kosovo (2003). 
    Law: KZ6310 J66 2003
  3. Romano, et al., Internationalized Criminal Courts and Tribunals: Sierra Leone, East Timor, Kosovo, and Cambodia (2004).  Law: KZ6310 I584 2004
  4. Report of the Secretary-General on the Establishment of a Special Court for Sierra Leone, U.N. SCOR, 55th Sess., U.N. Doc. S/2000/915 (Oct. 4, 2000).
  5. "The Sierra Leone Tribunal--Basic Documents," 5 Global Int'l Courts Rev. 111 (2004).  Statute, agreements, and rules of procedure & evidence.
  6. Luacci, Cyril, Digest of the Jurisprudence of the Special Court for Sierra Leone 2003-2005 (2007).  Law: KZ1208 S53 L38 2007

Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia

The United Nations has negotiated with the Royal Government of Cambodia to establish a tribunal to prosecute crimes committed during the Period of Democratic Kampuchea.  The agreement was recently ratified by the Cambodian government.  Relevant U.N. documents can be obtained through the Official Document Service of the United Nations, searchable at http://documents.un.org/.

  1. Khmer Rouge Trials, G.A. Res. 57/228, U.N. GAOR, 57th Sess., U.N. Doc. A/Res/57/228 (2002).
  2. Khmer Rouge Trials, G.A. Res. 57/228B, U.N. GAOR, 57th Sess., U.N. Doc. A/Res/57/288B (2003).  Annex to resolution contains the text of the drafted agreement.
  3. Report of the Secretary-General on Khmer Rouge Trials, U.N. GAOR, 57th Sess., Agenda Item 109(b), U.N. Doc. A/57/769 (2003).
  4. Report of the Secretary-General on Khmer Rouge Trials, U.N. GAOR, 58th Sess., Agenda Item 117(b), U.N. Doc. A/58/617 (2003).
  5. Report of the Secretary-General on Khmer Rouge Trials, U.N. GAOR, 59th Sess., Agenda Item 105(b), U.N. Doc. A/59/432 (2004), supplemented by U.N. Doc. A/59/432/Add.1 (2004).
  6. Access to the official English text of the agreement, ratification document, related Cambodian laws, indictments, and other materials are available from the Royal Government of Cambodia website, The Khmer Rouge Trial Task Force, at http://www.cambodia.gov.kh/krt/english/ (last visited May 12, 2010).
  7. Selected publications in print at Underwood:
    1. Romano, et al., Internationalized Criminal Courts and Tribunals: Sierra Leone, East Timor, Kosovo, and Cambodia (2004). 
      Law: KZ6310 I584 2004
    2. Williams, Sarah, "The Cambodian Extraordinary Chambers--A Dangerous Precedent for International Justice?," 53 Int'l & Comp. L.Q. 227 (2004). Overview, structure, jurisdiction, concerns.  Comparisons with other tribunals.


Ad Hoc Court for East Timor

  1. No official web site as of this date.
  2. Useful web site at the Global Policy Forum.  See http://www.globalpolicy.org/intljustice/etimorindx.htm.  Use the link to "East Timor" on that page for access to selected documents and information regarding East Timor, the Ad Hoc Court, and the Special Crimes Investigation Unit (SCIU). 
  3. Othman, Mohamed C., Accountability for International Humanitarian Law Violations: The Case for Rwanda and East Timor (2005). Law: K5301 O84 2005
  4. Romano, et al., Internationalized Criminal Courts and Tribunals: Sierra Leone, East Timor, Kosovo, and Cambodia (2004).  Law: KZ6310 I584 2004
  5. For additional information, check news sources or keyword search the Official Document Service of the United Nations for more recent documents.

    1. Progress Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission of Support to East Timor (for the period 14 August 2004 to 9 November 2004), UN SCOR, 59th Sess., U.N. Doc. S/2004/888 (Nov. 9, 2004).  See paragraphs 27-32.  [PDF file available in ODS database or from U.N. Security Council web page at http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/]
    2. Progress Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission of Support to East Timor (for the period from 10 November 2004 to 16 February 2005), UN SCOR, 60th Sess., U.N. Doc. S/2005/99 (Feb. 18, 2005).  See especially paragraphs 24-32.  [PDF file available in ODS database or from U.N. Security Council web page at http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/]
    3. Bowman, Herbert D., Letting the Big Fish Get Away: the United Nations Justice Effort in East Timor, 18 Emory Int'l L. Rev. 371 (2004).


Special Tribunal for Lebanon

  1. No official web site as of this date.

  2. Related Documents:

    1. Report of the Secretary-General on the Establishment of a Special Tribunal for Lebanon, (UN SCOR, 61st Sess., U.N. Doc. S/2006/893 (Nov. 15, 2006).  Text of agreement between the United Nations and the Republic of Lebanon in Annex I.  [PDF file available inthe ODS database or  U.N. Security Council page at http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/sgrep06.htm.]

    2. Statement by Mr. Nicolas Michel, Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs, the Legal Counsel, at the Informal Consultations held by the Security Council on 20 November 2006, UN SCOR, 61st Sess., U.N. Doc. S/2006/893/Add.1 (Nov. 21, 2006).  [PDF file available inthe ODS database or  U.N. Security Council page at http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/sgrep06.htm.]

Electronic Resources Beyond Lexis & Westlaw:
at the Underwood Law Library's Research Databases Web Site

[Commercial resources restricted to Dedman School of Law students & faculty] 

Commercial resources:

  1. AccessUN: United Nations Document Index.  Keyword searchable index and links to selected full text documents.  (See also the related Readex microfiche collection, United Nations Documents and Publications [1991-forward].)
  2. U.N. Treaty Collection.  Full text images.
  3. HeinOnline.  Full text journal articles including International Legal Materials; also, full text of bilateral and multilateral treaties to which the U.S. is a party.
  4. LegalTrac.  Index to journal articles back to 1980; selected full text.
  5. Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals.  Index to journal articles from non-common law jurisdictions.

Non-commercial sources:

  1. Official Document Service of the United Nations.  Now publicly accessible at http://documents.un.org.


Other Related Internet and Print Resources

International Courts and Tribunals Project at  http://www.worldlii.org/int/cases/.  Searchable database of final decisions from international, regional, and human rights courts, as well as decisions of U.N. committees on human rights-related issues.  Party name or keyword text searching.  See Project's initial web page for dates of coverage as it varies by court. (Free access.)

Case School of Law War Crimes Portal at http://law.case.edu/War-Crimes-Research-Portal/.  Collection of interpretative memoranda and reports.  Subject access to web-based resources.

Nuremberg War Crimes Trials

  1. Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Aug. 8, 1945. (Avalon Project of Yale Law School) (html text).
  2. Charter of the International Military Tribunal, 3 Bevans 1240 (Aug. 8, 1945).  (Available in Hein-On-Line electronic service and in print)
  3. Trial of Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal: Proceedings   (Avalon Project of Yale Law School) (html text).
  4. Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10, Nuremberg, 1946-1949 (15 volumes) (GPO 1949-1953).  Law: JX5439 G47

Tokyo War Crimes Trials

  1. Charter of the Military Tribunal for the Far East, 4 Bevans 21 (Jan. 19, 1946), superseded by 4 Bevans 27 (Apr. 26, 1946).  (Available in Hein-On-Line electronic service and in print).
  2. Pritchard & Zaide, eds., Tokyo War Crimes Trial (1981). Law: JX5438.3 P744 1981

Truth and Reconciliation Commissions.

  1. Official web site of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission at http://www.doj.gov.za/trc/ (last updated April 10, 2003).
  2. Truth Commissions Digital Collection. (U.S. Institute of Peace).  Links to documents, reports, and other information. (last visited Jan. 26, 2005).  Includes materials or links for commissions in the following jurisdictions: Argentina, Bolivia, Chad, Chile, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Germany, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Nepal, Nigeria, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Serbia & Montenegro, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Uganda, Uruguay, and Zimbabwe.

Revised July 2010